Climate Cabinet Education

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Civic Engagement & the Clean Energy Transition:

Opportunities & Challenges in Municipal Utilities By Nick Arnold, Electric Utilities Program Manager October 2021 Climate Cabinet is focused on the need for climate action at every level of government. In fact, the vast majority of the over 500,000 elected officials in the United States are elected at the state and local level – and each of them has an important role to play in shaping an equitable clean energy future. Among those half a million local offices, my research is focused on a subset of elected offices that have a particularly important role in  our energy future, and a direct channel for democratic participation: Municipal electric utilities.  What are Municipal Utilities?‍ In over 2,000 communities across the country, local elected officials are in charge of Municipal electric utilities and have the power to transition their communities to clean, renewable energy. If this is the first you’re learning about municipal utilities, don’t worry! You’re not alone. Energy governance is complex, and municipal utilities are especially decentralized. That’s why Climate Cabinet set out to build a first national dataset of these Municipal utilities, their role in energy transition, and what needs to be done to bring clean energy to every part of the country. But before we dive into Municipal utilities, let’s zoom out for a minute. Most people know something about their electric utility, even if it’s just how much they pay in bills per month. For a lot of U.S. customers, their energy comes from a private company, known in the industry as an investor-owned utility (IOU), which is also usually a regulated monopoly. That means customers can’t choose to buy energy from a different company, so instead of market competition there is regulation. In many cases, state regulators (usually called commissioners, in the Public Utilities Commission or Public Service Commission, although the names vary) make the decision on how much IOUs can charge their customers. Since these regulators are usually appointed by the governor, the closest political link voters have to those decision-makers are Gubernatorial elections or, in a handful of states, voting directly for those regulators.  But for municipal utilities, those regulatory and rate decisions are made by Mayors, City Councils, or directly elected utility boards — leaders elected by and from the communities they govern. However, since most local elected officials aren’t energy wonks or utility management experts, they tend to defer to whatever the city manager, utility staff, or advisory board recommends. That means if you live in a community with a municipal utility, your bills are on the ballot in every local election. Local elections could mean the difference between electing a consumer advocate and climate champion who will fight for just and equitable rates or a Council member who will defer to business as usual. ‍ Now take that same dynamic and apply it to every other decision made about energy. Should the city retire it’s 50+ year old coal plant and replace it with cheaper renewables? Should the utility offer financial incentives to electrify appliances or add rooftop solar and residential storage? Should the health impacts from pollution be considered when deciding rates and making economic decisions about the grid? These questions and many more like them are all features of running a utility. With Municipal utilities, the public has the opportunity to make their voice heard in all these critical decisions and that’s why they’re so important to pay attention to. ‍ According to the American Public Power Association, municipal utilities serve around 15% of U.S. energy customers and are responsible for 10% of energy generated in the U.S. Nationally, municipal utilities are responsible for 9.7% of natural gas capacity and 11.5% of coal capacity. They are also responsible for an impressive 21.9% of hydroelectric capacity, but only a dismal 1.7% of wind, solar, and other renewable capacity. There’s a lot of nuance beneath these top line numbers — regional potential for renewable energy, grid management, variance in energy needs — but they tell two chapters of the same story: if the U.S. is going to reach a zero carbon grid, municipal utilities need to retire their fossil fuel plants and ramp up renewable assets.‍‍ Municipal Clean Energy Leadership has Co-benefits for Communities‍ Municipally-owned clean energy offers so many benefits on top of the climate impact, from jobs and economic growth to community pride and climate resilience. ‍ When it comes to local economics, year after year we’re seeing the same thing in job reports: clean energy and especially energy efficiency are the lion’s share of new energy jobs added to the national economy. These are climate-friendly, good-paying industries that boost the economy both through job creation and by making the community cleaner, more efficient, and more resilient to climate change. Whether a City Council and its municipal utility support energy efficiency programs and renewable energy or not has a big impact on whether the benefits from these industries and job opportunities reach the community.‍ As extreme weather and other impacts of climate change become more tangible, municipally-owned renewable projects can be both a source of community pride and a protection from some of the worst grid failures that can happen. Take the Murray Hydroelectric plant in North Little Rock, AR for example. This hydro plant came online in 1989 and has been a big source of community pride ever since. The Murray plant was even credited by local utility officials with limiting risk from the polar vortex that critically threatened the grid across the gulf region, a crisis that highlights the importance of energy decision-making and especially local resilience to extreme weather.‍ For some municipal utilities, revenue from power plants they own supplement the city budget, enabling better city services and more opportunities to grow. The ability to own and operate the whole energy system, from generation to transmission to customer-facing services, can offer great economic benefits and keep utility bill dollars local. Of course sometimes this extra revenue is a function of too-high rates, but that offers a big opportunity for

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State Battlegrounds: How States Lead on Climate Action… And Hold Us Back

By Emma Fisher, September 2021 We probably sound like a broken record: we can’t tackle climate change without state leadership. State legislatures are the under-the-radar battleground for our future.  ‍ In the face of lagging federal climate leadership over the past few decades, states have stepped up and written the playbook for transitioning to clean electricity. In fact, since 2000, nearly half of all growth in renewable electricity generation and capacity in the US has been mandated by Renewable Portfolio Standards, or clean energy requirements, set by states. ‍ Coordinated cross-state efforts to transition to clean energy are working. But while some states are ratcheting up ambition to tackle the climate crisis — others are locking us into a polluting economy. They’re doing this (1) through their own jurisdiction over powerful state-level regulations, and (2) through their positioning to either help or block both local and federal efforts as well. Let’s walk through both of those in turn: ‍ States Have Important Jurisdiction Over The Clean Energy Transition  State governments are on the frontlines of dealing with the impacts of climate change, directing the clean energy transition, and determining whether these changes will exacerbate inequality or work to address it. They can open markets for clean energy and transportation technologies through policy and their own procurement efforts — or slam those doors shut to protect polluters. States are responsible for significant transportation spending, both for dirty highway spending and clean public transportation systems. And, play an important role in preparing for and responding to natural disasters, addressing ongoing environmental injustices, and ensuring resilience in all communities — or not. Where states choose to invest resources determines which communities benefit, and which get left behind.  State Leadership Let’s start with the many ways states are using that power for good. Here are some of the critical ways states are stepping up to the plate as leaders in the fight for climate justice: 14 states and the Virgin Islands have binding renewable energy targets of 50% or greater. 10 states, Washington DC, Puerto Rico and Guam have 100% renewable energy or carbon-neutral requirements or goals. These types of standards are having a huge impact: since 2000, state Renewable and Clean Energy Standards have driven nearly half of all growth in renewable electricity generation and capacity in the US.‍ Standards have been complemented by regional collaborations, like the Mid-Atlantic Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). To date, 11 states have joined RGGI to lower emissions, save consumers money and drive clean energy investment in low income communities.‍ In the transportation sector, other states have adopted California’s Low-Emission and Zero Emission Vehicle Standards, which is estimated to cut carbon emissions 40% and other health-harming pollution 75% by 2025 compared to 2012 model-year vehicles. Transportation is the largest source of carbon emissions in the US, and these standards have already saved Americans more than $86 billion at the pump.‍ It’s critical that all of these types of policies center frontline and marginalized communities, including Black and Brown communities, low-income areas, and communities in transition. There is a long way to go towards achieving environmental justice, but at least 18 states now have an Environmental Justice office or staff dedicated to ensuring environmental justice communities are included in the policymaking process. This map shows states with binding 100% clean or renewable energy standards (in blue) and 50% clean or renewable energy standards (in green). Policies crafted in states become the blueprint for other states and Federal action. Great ideas and leaders are tested in states and can be directly channeled into stronger national policymaking.  For example, states like California, Virginia, Illinois, Washington, New York, and others require investment in low-income communities and communities of color as part of their clean energy investment requirements. These states have begun to center climate action in strong environmental justice protections, leading the way for Biden’s federal Justice40 initiative.‍ As another example, the Clean Energy Standard was first introduced in Iowa in 1983 as a state-specific policy lever. Today, more than 50% of U.S. states have cemented a statewide renewables target, and a Clean Electricity Standard is at the center of the Federal budget reconciliation debate.  There is a long way to go, but states are showing the way, and are responsible for many of the biggest climate and renewable energy wins we’ve seen to date. Captured States: Blocking Local And Federal Efforts  ‍ Leading states have enabled big steps forward, but state governments are also capable of holding climate action back — often in insidious ways, which we’ll get into below. But because of their nexus between local ambition and federal implementation — states also have the power to block efforts across levels of government, including city, county, and federal actions. ‍ In our analysis of thousands of state climate bills, these disturbing patterns rose to the top, clearly demonstrating states’ power to block climate progress across levels of government:‍ States are blocking local action:  ‍Many cities and small towns are stepping up as leaders in the clean energy transition — fighting for their residents’ health, safety, quality of life, and pocketbooks. However, many states are pre-empting cities’ authority to make progress on critical climate issues: from blocking cities’ efforts to ban fracking within their boundaries to preventing them enacting local ordinances that would require new gas stations to install electric vehicle chargers, phase out gas in new buildings, hold polluters accountable, and more. Too many states are blocking local efforts to protect residents and take climate action seriously. ‍ In 2020 and 2021, 23 states considered or passed bills to pre-empt cities from requiring new buildings to be all-electric. This is an existential threat to climate efforts, since buildings use almost 30% of energy in the US, and electrifying buildings is the first step to powering them off of the sun and wind. We can’t do that if states prevent us from phasing out fossil fuels like gas. ‍ State pre-emption laws are sneaky attacks on communities and climate action. They’re flying under the

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How Public Power Advocates Helped Win a Major Victory for Renewables in Rural America

Hard work by environmentalists has helped turn low-turnout utility board elections into a vehicle for change in Nebraska By Mackenzie Brown, Municipal Utilities Intern In 2020, 58% of Nebraska voters chose Donald Trump. Both the state’s U.S. Senators, all three Members of Congress, and its Governor and Lieutenant Governor are Republican, a party that has taken steps to block renewable energy and action on climate change at the federal, state and local level. Despite this partisan environment, the state’s major utilities have all committed to a goal of 100% net-zero emissions by 2050, making it the first red state to do so. How was this accomplished? One piece of the puzzle lies in how Nebraska structures its power system.  Nebraska is unique in that it is the only state that has a 100% publicly-owned electric system. Instead of being composed of investor-owned utilities motivated by profit and governed by state and federal regulators, the state’s various municipal and rural electric providers are governed by democratically elected boards. This system was put in place during a populist era of the state’s history during the 1930’s-40’s, when ideas of public ownership were gaining popularity.  This system puts the power to control Nebraska’s utilities into the hands of voters, and gives environmentalists and renewable energy advocates a unique opportunity. Decisions regarding their electric utilities are controlled by elected or appointed boards, which means anti-renewable members can often be challenged directly at the ballot box, as we’ve seen happen in recent years.  This is in contrast to other states, where advocates usually have to hold large utility companies  accountable indirectly, via statewide regulators or state legislators.  Since 2015, local environmental groups like the Sierra Club and Nebraska Conservation Voters have been organizing and fundraising around these races, an investment that has paid off.  The first of Nebraska’s utilities to commit to renewables was the Omaha Public Power District, which, after an election in Summer 2019 added two new Directors to create a pro-renewable majority, voted unanimously to commit to 100% net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. The Lincoln Electric System board, which is appointed by the mayor, was soon to follow suit, committing to a 100% net-zero by 2040 in November 2020. Combined, these utilities already serve over 518,700 customers, a considerable portion of Nebraska’s population. Most recently this December, the Nebraska Public Power District, a rural provider serving over 600,000 Nebraskans, joined the movement by voting 9-2 to commit to net-zero emissions by 2050. The 2020 NPPD board election, which saw two new directors added, was the most expensive in the board’s history, with $175,000 being contributed by renewable energy advocates, industry professionals, and everyone in between.  While these commitments are important, there are some caveats for those excited about a transition to renewables in the state. The utilities have all committed to net-zero emissions, which isn’t the same thing as switching entirely to renewables, as it leaves the potential for usage of carbon capture or carbon credits, both of which have their own issues. Additionally, the goal of net-zero by 2040 in Lincoln doesn’t have interim goals, and as for Omaha and NPPD, it’s likely that net-zero by 2050 would have happened regardless of commitment due to the takeoff of wind energy in the state and the rising cost of coal plant operations. Despite these drawbacks, they’re still a major win for environmentalists in the state that should be celebrated. There are a few lessons that can be learned from these victories in Nebraska. The first is that conservative states or regions shouldn’t – and can’t – be written off when it comes to the fight for a just transition. In Nebraska, a jobs message was used to great effect in several utilities, because voters could see the writing on the wall: wind energy is becoming more and more popular in the state and overtaking coal and other fossil fuels.  Secondly, these victories have shown the power of under-the-radar utility decisions. While Nebraska has more public power than most parts of the country, many communities across the US have utilities that are owned by an elected leader or board – be it through cooperative utilities, state public service commissions, or city council elections. Many of these positions have little name recognition and low voter turnout (although this may be changing- see the 2020 NPPD board race and its jump in fundraising), but the people elected to these positions are making decisions that are vital to the clean energy transition.  Often nonpartisan, these public power board races also sometimes allow advocates to sidestep partisan polarization and advance energy goals even in areas where electing Democratic representatives might be a major uphill battle.Voters in a conservative area might be unwilling to elect a Democrat to city council, but may very well be interested in a board candidate who is running on clean energy jobs in a nonpartisan election – even if they have the same position. Nebraska is a key example of this. While voters’ partisan identity (whether they consider themselves a Republican or Democrat) tends to be rigid and difficult to change at an individual level, opinions on specific policies can often be more malleable due to changing framing and conditions, as well as political parties changing their position on issues over time. Examples of progressive policies passed in conservative states- such as free college in Tennessee, public banking in North Dakota, and monthly payouts via the Alaska Permanent Fund- show us that these policies are often popular even among conservatives, and become controversial when they become associated with a particular political party. This is on top of the fact that partisanship is often less relevant in hyper-local races in the first place, where the decisions, even if they have a big impact, are often seen as decoupled from a national agenda. All this paves the way for a potential pathway to clean energy by taking advantage of non-partisan or less-partisan municipal civic engagement around public utilities and energy decisions. Nebraska has shown

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Why Climate Change is a Justice Issue: View from Virginia

By Emily Liu, Research & Policy Intern at Climate Cabinet Action June 2, 2021 You may have noticed the racial justice movement and climate movement alike are pointing out the need to address climate change and social justice hand-in-hand. Here’s why. Race and poverty often go hand in hand with the disproportionate burden of environmental hazards. More power plants, highways, sources of air pollution and toxic waste are placed in marginalized communities than anywhere else. As a result, communities of color are exposed to poor air quality and subject to public health risks, while also having the least resources to deal with climate change and its effects. The movement for environmental justice seeks to address this injustice of environmental racism, by fighting for fair and equitable distribution of environmental benefits and burdens. The disproportionate location of polluting infrastructure in communities of color is directly tied to systemic racism and poverty. Redlined neighborhoods, which are usually low-income with a large black or brown populations, are targeted for industrial polluting projects and sidelined in the decision-making process. Redlined neighborhoods are also disproportionately subject to fewer green spaces, urban heat islands, and are underserved by public transportation, all of which impacts public health. ‍Burdening communities of color with polluting infrastructure isn’t limited to the urban scope; in rural areas, minority communities are also disproportionately subject to environmental and health hazards. Virginia currently plans to build the Mountain Valley Pipeline, which will run through many poor, rural and predominantly minority communities. For instance, the Lambert Compressor Station, one of four proposed stations to pump natural gas through the pipeline, will be located in Chatham, which is also home to a majority black and brown community and an existing Transco Compressor Station. Environmental justice highlights the intersection of systemic racism and poverty with climate change. We need to address racial justice and climate together. What can we do? The fight for climate justice and environmental justice will be long and fraught, but as engaged citizens, we have power – and there are policies that can help fight systemic racism and fight the climate crisis together. Policies advancing clean energy and clean transportation are a good start, and these policies can prioritize clean energy investments and pollution remediation in communities of color. For example, states including Washington and California have set aside money to directly invest in low-income communities through clean transportation programs and necessary electric vehicle charging infrastructure. In terms of driving investment to marginalized communities, Virginia has begun to take steps in the right direction with House Bill 981, which dedicates revenue from the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative cap-and-trade program to supporting energy efficiency programs in low-income neighborhoods. This will help lower people’s energy bills in addition to cutting emissions — but we still have a long way to go. Investing in clean energy, particularly among vulnerable communities, can create more good-paying jobs, increase the local tax base, lower energy costs, and improve air quality and public health. It’s a win-win. We can’t separate environmental issues from social and economic justice issues. Climate change and polluting infrastructure are disproportionately harming marginalized communities, and the clean energy transition is an opportunity to begin addressing a legacy of injustice. We all need to educate ourselves, our communities, and our elected leaders about the connections between systemic racism and environmental justice. ‍

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We Created a Climate Toolkit for State Legislators: Here’s Why

October 2020 We need to pass bold climate policy in every state in the US within the next 10 years. We don’t have time for every state to reinvent the wheel – or for every state legislator to figure out how to navigate this complex landscape on their own. ‍ State legislatures play a critical role in advancing climate justice and the clean energy economy. But despite their importance, state legislatures don’t get the public attention or support that they deserve. Every state legislator should have a proactive climate plan at their fingertips, and they should know exactly where they can go for additional resources and support.‍ That’s why we created the “Building Blocks of State Climate Policy” – a toolkit of best-practice examples, resources and model legislation designed to help state legislators put forth bold, equitable climate plans across the US. ‍ State Legislators Need Resources  ‍We need to cut emissions across every sector of the economy quickly – in a way that advances equity and creates jobs. That’s a difficult task for part-time state legislators balancing many other legislative and professional priorities. According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, the annual salary for state lawmakers is $38,370 which is well below the annual salary for everyday Americans. They tend to have only 1-2 legislative aides on staff, and usually don’t have a background in climate or clean energy. State lawmakers are on the frontlines of tackling climate change, but they don’t have the resources and support they need. ‍ Furthermore, many states have been on “climate defense” for too long. Climate conversations have been bogged down in correcting the record on false misconceptions and bad faith attacks – rather than selling the benefits of the clean energy transition or creating bold policy visions for the path forward. The Building Blocks of State Climate Policy outlines what these proactive state climate policy agendas can look like – drawing upon examples of best-practice climate policy already passed in “purple” states around the US. In doing so, it provides a toolkit for action and builds legislators’ confidence that states can be at the vanguard of the climate movement – while also creating jobs and advancing justice. In many places, they already are.‍ States Play a Critical Role in Advancing Climate Action – Or Holding it Back‍ ‍States have a lot of power to reduce emissions, create jobs, and prioritize environmental justice. They can determine how much of their electricity will come from renewable sources; create market conditions that allow solar energy to thrive; set clean transportation standards; and ensure that equity is at the center of natural disaster preparedness and response. ‍ For example: one of the most powerful tools in state legislatures’ climate toolbox is the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). RPS policies set requirements for renewable energy, and have been the largest driver of clean energy growth in the US to date. In Nevada, SB 358, which requires 50% renewable energy by 2030, passed with unanimous bipartisan support – and will pave the creation of 11,170 clean energy jobs. 14 states have already passed 100% clean energy policies. States can and must play a leadership role in the clean energy transition.‍ But, states’ large influence over the clean energy transition – and their nexus between local and federal governance – means they can also block progress. Right now, 13 states have either passed or are considering legislation to ban building electrification requirements, which is a prerequisite for powering buildings with renewable energy. And states’ role in allocating federal disaster relief funding can either exacerbate injustice or work to address it. As one stark example, after Hurricane Harvey hit the Gulf in 2017, a well-to-do white neighborhood in Texas received $64,000 per affected resident, while affected residents in a nearby majority-minority neighborhood received an average of $84. ‍ State legislators must play a huge role in tackling the climate crisis. There are policy solutions to decarbonize our economy, create good jobs, and ensure equity. We’re ensuring legislative champions have these solutions at their fingertips. ‍ Turning Research into Action‍ ‍State legislators must understand their role in addressing the climate crisis and advancing environmental justice, and they must have easy access to resources for action. Our Building Blocks of State Climate Policy toolkit meets legislators needs by pulling model legislation and best-practice examples from states across the US all into one place – organized in a framework that provides context for the full scope of necessary action.‍ We hope you’ll share the Building Blocks of State Climate Policy with legislators and advocates in your networks in states across the US. Let us know how you use it at info@climatecabinet.org.

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Database of Climate Policy Databases

October 2020 Many climate policy databases and resources exist for the federal, state, and local levels – but it can be time consuming to find the resource you need. At Climate Cabinet Education, we’ve compiled many of these resources for our own reference. Now, we want to share our “database of climate policy databases” with you!  As always, we’re committed to centralizing climate and clean energy information so that it is accessible and actionable for decision makers, advocates and the public. Know of a resource that should be added to this list? Let us know. You can contact us at education@climatecabinet.org.‍ International Resources Climate Change Laws Of The World- Sabin Center Database of climate laws, policies, litigation cases, and climate targets globally. Federal Resources Climate Change US Litigation Database- Sabin Center Database of ongoing litigation. Can filter by type of claim, principal laws they address, their filing years, and their jurisdictions. Climate Regulation Database- Sabin Center Database of regulations and other efforts undertaken by federal agencies to address the causes and impacts of climate change. Climate Policy Menu- EDF, Niskanen, Breakthrough High-level overview of different federal policy mechanisms, and an outline of what these mean, along with key design considerations. Conservative orientation. State Resources Building Blocks Of State Climate Policy Climate Cabinet Education’s toolkit of best practice state-level climate policy across sectors, with a focus on jobs, justice. It includes examples and model legislation from states across the US. NCSL Energy Bill Tracking Database- NCSL Database of energy legislation. Need to search ENERGY legislation for each year from 2007 to 2019 by state, topic, keyword, year, status or primary sponsor. NCSL Environment Bill Tracking Database- NCSL Database of environment legislation. Search ENVIRONMENT legislation for each year from 2007 to 2019 by state, topic, keyword, year, status or primary sponsor. NCEL State Environmental Bill Tracker Map – NCEL Searchable map featuring recent environmental legislation introduced in all 50 states. Updated biweekly. NCEL State Environmental Policy Resource Center – NCEL Resources on “trending” environmental policies. Designed for US state legislators seeking to advance environmental policy. NCEL Session Recaps – NCEL After each legislative session, NCEL compiles the highlights of some of the strongest environmental legislation in US states across issue areas. Digital Environmental Legislative Handbook- USC Schwarzenegger InstituteDatabase of state laws on air quality, energy efficiency & renewable energy, human health and climate change. State Climate Policy Map- C2ES Interactive maps that show climate policies and laws in the US. Shows GHG target, carbon pricing, electricity sector policy, decoupling policy, climate action plan, LCFS/AFS. Community Power Map-ILSRInteractive map that highlights local and state power policies with ranks for each state. Links to resources used to gather information on each layer and marker. Policies for the People – The Chisholm Legacy Project Policies for the People features policies to support Black climate justice leadership. The policies below have been selected to provide holistic support to those resisting extractivism and creating regenerative and democratic systems in their communities. State Incentives For Renewables & Efficiency- DSIRE Database of state and local policies, laws, and incentives for renewables and efficiency. Not beginner-friendly. Advanced Energy Legislation Tracker- Colorado State University CNEE Database that tracks bills/laws and legislative sessions by state. No summaries of legislation or links to statutory text. State Policy Opportunity Tracker (SPOT)- Colorado State University CNEE Policy “gap” analysis/tracker. Shows opportunities in each state, organized by market preparation, market creation, and market expansion. The State Energy & Environmental Impact Center | NYU School Of Law- NYU Attorney General focused. Oregon Climate Action Plan Progress Report 2021- Renew Oregon Report card on Oregon’s state-level climate action plan that goes through specific policy objectives. Department Of Energy (DOE) Alternative Fuels Data Center- US DOE Big list of state and local laws/regulations, private/utility incentives, and state-wide incentives related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Not beginner-friendly. Local Resources CDP Database- CDP Hundreds of data sets on local action towards a global sustainable economy (including GHG emissions, mitigation actions, climate hazards, etc.). Can’t organize by county or city, making it difficult to use. Electrify The South Electric Vehicle (EV) Policy Toolkit- Electrify The South This toolkit includes best-practice local government EV policies from around the country with links to real-world examples. ProGov21- ProGov Searchable library of progressive laws and practices at the city level, along with toolkits for effective communication and advocacy. Not comprehensive. Municode- Municode Municipal policy database that municipalities often use to upload their own general codes Pathways Across Jurisdictions Model Laws For Deep Decarbonization In The US- Sabin Center Database of more than 1000 models and actual federal, state and local laws that legislatures can customize and adopt in order to achieve deep reductions in fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. Just Solutions Collective- Solutions Library This library of research, analysis, and example legislation is intended to support BIPOC and frontline communities, allies, and policymakers in ensuring best practices for justice and equity are included in climate justice and policy frameworks. Adaptation Adaptation Clearinghouse- Georgetown Database of Federal, state, and local climate policies, focused on adaptation. Difficult to navigate. Deregulation Tracker Climate Deregulation Tracker- Sabin Center Tracker of steps taken by the Trump administration and Congress to scale back or wholly eliminate federal climate mitigation and adaptation measures. Climate Deregulation Tracker- Brookings Tracker of steps taken by the Trump administration and Congress to scale back or wholly eliminate federal regulation across 8 categories. Clean Energy Jobs US Clean Energy Jobs, Investments, And Projects- Clean Energy Progress Map of clean energy jobs, investments, and projects by state, county, congressional district, and lower and upper state legislative district. US Clean Energy Jobs- Energy Foundation Map of clean energy jobs by state. Advocacy Climate Opinion Map- Yale Maps that show how Americans’ climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and policy support vary at the state, congressional district, and county levels. Climate Advocacy Resources- Climate Advocacy Lab Resource list of polling, messaging, and case studies to support grassroots campaign strategy support. Climate Nexus Polling- Climate Nexus State and federal polling,